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Post by prasanth on Fri Jan 11, 2008 6:42 pm

A Chronological History of events:

1951 Pauling and Corey propose the structure for the alpha-helix and beta-sheet (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 27: 205-211, 1951; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 37: 729-740, 1951).
1953 - Watson & Crick propose the double helix model for DNA based x-ray data obtained by Franklin & Wilkins (Nature, 171: 737-738, 1953).
1954 - Perutz's group develop heavy atom methods to solve the phase problem in protein crystallography.
1955 - The sequence of the first protein to be analysed, bovine insulin, is announed by F.Sanger.
1958 - The first integrated circuit is constructed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is formed in the US
1962 - Pauling's theory of molecular evolution
1965 - Margaret Dayhoff's Atlas of Protein Sequences
1968 - Packet-switching network protocols are presented to ARPA
1969 - The ARPANET is created by linking computers at Stanford, UCSB, The University of Utah and UCLA.
1970 - The details of the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence comparison are published.
1971- Ray Tomlinson (BBN) invents the email program.
1972 - The first recombinant DNA molecule is created by Paul Berg and his group.
1973 - The Brookhaven Protein DataBank is announeced (Acta.Cryst.B,1973,29:1764). Robert Metcalfe receives his Ph.D from Harvard University. His thesis describes Ethernet.
1974 - Vint Cerf and Robert Khan develop the concept of connecting networks of computers into an "internet" and develop the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
1975 - Microsoft Corporation is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis, where separation of proteins on SDS polyacrylamide gel is combined with separation according to isoelectric points, is announced by P. H. O'Farrell (J. Biol. Chem., 250: 4007-4021, 1975).
1976 - The Unix-To-Unix Copy Protocol (UUCP) is developed at Bell Labs.
E. M. Southern published the experimental details for the Southern Blot technique of specific sequences of DNA (J. Mol. Biol., 98: 503-517, 1975).
1977 - The full description of the Brookhaven PDB (http://www.pdb.bnl.gov) is published (Bernstein, F.C.; Koetzle, T.F.; Williams, G.J.B.; Meyer, E.F.; Brice, M.D.; Rodgers, J.R.; Kennard, O.; Shimanouchi, T.; Tasumi, M.J.; J. Mol. Biol., 1977, 112:, 535).
Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert (Harvard) and Frederick Sanger (U.K. Medical Research Council), report methods for sequencing DNA.
DNA sequencing and software to analyze it ( Staden )
1978 - The first Usenet connection is established between Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin.
1980 - The first complete gene sequence for an organism (FX174) is published. The gene consists of 5,386 base pairs which code nine proteins.
WŁthrich et. al. publish paper detailing the use of multi-dimensional NMR for protein structure determination (Kumar, A.; Ernst, R.R.; WŁthrich, K.; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 1980, 95:, 1).
IntelliGenetics, Inc. founded in California. Their primary product is the IntelliGenetics Suite of programs for DNA and protein sequence analysis.
1981 - The Smith-Waterman algorithm for sequence alignment is published.
IBM introduces its Personal Computer to the market.
The concept of a sequence motif ( Doolittle )
1982 - Genetics Computer Group (GCG) created as a part of the University of Wisconsin of Wisconsin Biotechnology Center. The company's primary product is The Wisconsin Suite of molecular biology tools.
GenBank Release 3 made public
Phage lambda genome sequenced
1983 - The Compact Disk (CD) is launched. Name servers are developed at the University of Wisconsin.
Sequence database searching algorithm ( Wilbur-Lipman )
LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) begin production of DNA clone (cosmid) libraries representing single chromosomes.
DNA analysis becomes viable with the discovery of Polymerase Chain Reaction. It allows small samples of DNA to be multiplied to produce a large enough sample to analyse
1984 - Jon Postel's Domain Name System (DNS) is placed on-line.
The Macintosh is announced by Apple Computer.
1985 - The FASTP/FASTN algorithm is published.
Robert Sinsheimer holds meeting on human genome sequencing at University of California, Santa Cruz .
At OHER, Charles DeLisi and David A. Smith commission the first Santa Fe conference to assess the feasibility of a Human Genome Initiative
1986 - Following the Santa Fe conference, DOE OHER announces Human Genome Initiative. With $5.3 million, pilot projects begin at DOE national laboratories to develop critical resources and technologies.
The term "Genomics" appeared for the first time to describe the scientific discipline of mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genes. The term was coined by Thomas Roderick as a name for the new journal.
Amoco Technology Corporation acquires IntelliGenetics.
The SWISS-PROT database is created by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL).
The PCR reaction is described by Kary Mullis and co-workers.
1987- The use of yeast artifical chromosomes (YAC) is described (David T. Burke, et. al., Science, 236: 806-812).
The physical map of e. coli is published (Y. Kohara, et. al., Cell 51: 319-337).
Perl (Practical Extraction Report Language) is released by Larry Wall.
Congressionally chartered DOE advisory committee, HERAC, recommends a 15-year, multidisciplinary, scientific, and technological undertaking to map and sequence the human genome. DOE designates multidisciplinary human genome centers.
NIH NIGMS begins funding of genome projects
1988 - National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) created at NIH/NLM
EMBnet network for database distribution
The Human Genome Intiative is started (commission on Life Sciences, National Research council. Mapping and sequencing the Human Genome, National Academy Press: washington, D.C.), 1988.
The FASTA algorith for sequence comparison is published by Pearson and Lupman.
A new program, an Internet computer virus desined by a student, infects 6,000 military computers in the US.
Reports by congressional OTA and NAS NRC committees recommend concerted genome research program.
HUGO founded by scientists to coordinate efforts internationally
First annual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory meeting on human genome mapping and sequencing.
DOE and NIH sign MOU outlining plans for cooperation on genome research.
Telomere (chromosome end) sequence having implications for aging and cancer research is identified at LANL
1989 - The genetics Computer Group (GCG) becomes a privatae company.
Oxford Molceular Group,Ltd.(OMG) founded, UK by Anthony Marchigton, David Ricketts, James Hiddleston, Anthony Rees, and W.Graham Richards. Primary products: Anaconds, Asp, Cameleon and others (molecular modeling, drug design, protein design).
DNA STSs recommended to correlate diverse types of DNA clones.
DOE and NIH establish Joint ELSI Working Group
1990 - The BLAST program (Altschul,et.al.) is implemented.
Molecular applications group is founded in California by Michael Levitt and Chris Lee. Their primary products are Look and SegMod which are used for molecular modeling and protein deisign.
InforMax is founded in Bethesda, MD. The company's products address sequence analysis, database and data management, searching, publication graphics, clone construction, mapping and primer design.
DOE and NIH present joint 5-year U.S. HGP plan to Congress. The 15-year project formally begins.
Projects begun to mark gene sites on chromosome maps as sites of mRNA expression.
Research and development begun for efficient production of more stable, large-insert BACs
1991 - The research institute in Geneva (CERN) announces the creation of the protocols which make -up the World Wide Web.
The creation and use of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is described.
Incyte Pharmaceuticals, a genomics company headquartered in Palo Alto California, is formed.
Myriad Genetics, Inc. is founded in Utah. The company's goal is to lead in the discovery of major common human disease genes and their related pathways. The company has discovered and sequenced, with its academic collaborators, the following major genes: BRCA1, BRACA1 , CHD1, MMAC1, MMSC1, MMSC2, CtIP, p16, p19 and MTS2.
Human chromosome mapping data repository, GDB, established
1992 -Low-resolution genetic linkage map of entire human genome published.
Guidelines for data release and resource sharing announced by DOE and NIH
1993 - Sanger Centre , Hinxton, UK .
CuraGen Corporation is formed in New Haven, CT.
Affymetrix begins independent operations in Santa Clara, California.
International IMAGE Consortium established to coordinate efficient mapping and sequencing of gene-representing cDNAs.
DOE-NIH ELSI Working Group's Task Force on Genetic and Insurance Information releases recommendations.
DOE and NIH revise 5-year goals [Science 262, 43-46 (Oct. 1, 1993)]
IOM releases U.S. HGP-funded report, "Assessing Genetic Risks."
LBNL implements novel transposon-mediated chromosome-sequencing system.
GRAIL sequence-interpretation service provides Internet access at ORNL
1994 - Netscape Communications Corporation founded and releases Naviagator, the commerical version of NCSA's Mozilla.
Gene Logic is formed in Maryland.
The PRINTS database of protein motifs is published by Attwood and Beck.
Oxford Molecular Group acquires IntelliGenetics.
EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute , Hinxton, UK.
Genetic-mapping 5-year goal achieved 1 year ahead of schedule.
Completion of second-generation DNA clone libraries representing each human chromosome by LLNL and LBNL
1995 - The Haemophilus influenzea genome (1.Cool is sequenced ( Fleischmann et al. , Science 269 :496-512 (1995).
LANL and LLNL announce high-resolution physical maps of chromosome 16 and chromosome 19, respectively
The Mycoplasma genitalium genome is sequenced ( Fraser et. al. , Science 270 :397-403 (1995).
Moderate-resolution maps of chromosomes 3, 11, 12, and 22 maps published .
Physical map with over 15,000 STS markers published.
First (nonviral) whole genome sequenced (for the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae).
Sequence of smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium, completed; provides a model of the minimum number of genes needed for independent existence
1996 - The genome for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeadt, 12.1 Mb) is sequenced.
The prosite database is reported by Bairoch, et.al.
Methanococcus jannaschii genome sequenced; confirms existence of third major branch of life on earth.
DOE initiates 6 pilot projects on BAC end sequencing.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) genome sequence completed by international consortium
Affymetrix produces the first commerical DNA chips.
Sequence of the human T-cell receptor region completed
1997 - The genome for E.coli (4.7 Mbp) is published.
Oxford Molecualr Group acquires the Genetics Computer Group.
LION bioscience AG founded as an intergrated genomics company with strong focus on bioinformatics. The company is built from IP out of the European Molecualr Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the European Bioinformtics Institute (EBI), the GErman Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the University of Heidelberg.
paradigm Genetics Inc., a company focussed on the application of genomic technologies to enhance worldwide food and fiber production, is founded in Research Triangle Park, NC.
deCode genetics publishes a paper that described the location of the FET1 gene, which is responsible for familial essential tremor, on chromosome 13 (Nature Genetics).
NIH NCHGR becomes National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).
Second large-scale sequencing strategy meeting held in Bermuda
High-resolution physical maps of chromosomes X and 7 completed.
DOE-NIH Task Force on Genetic Testing releases final report and recommendations.
DOE forms Joint Genome Institute for implementing high-throughput activities at DOE human genome centers, initially in sequencing and functional genomics
1998 - The genomes for Caenorhabitis elegans and baker's yeast are published.
The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics is established as a non-profit foundation.
Craig Venter forms Celera in Rockville, Maryland.
PE Informatics was formed as a center of Excellence within PE Biosystems. This center brings together and leverges the complementary expertise of PE Nelson and Molecualr Informatics, to further complement the genetic instrumention expertise of Applied Biosystems.
Inpharmatica, a new Genomics and Bioinformatics company, is established by University College London, the Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, five leading scientists from major British academic centres and Unibio Limited.
GeneFormatics, a company dedicated to the analysis and predication of protein structure and function, is formed in San Diego.
Molecualr Simulations Inc. is acquired by Pharmacopeia.
1999 - deCode genetics maps the gene linked to pre-eclampsia as a locus on chromosome 2p13.
First Human Chromosome Completely Sequenced! On December 1, researchers in the Human Genome Project announced the complete sequencing of the DNA making up human chromosome 22.
Joint Genome Institute sequencing facility opens in Walnut Creek, CA.
Major Drug Firms Create Public SNP Consortium.
HGP advances goal for obtaining a draft sequence of the entire human genome from 2001 to 2000
2000 - The genome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.3 Mbp) is published.
The A.thaliana genome (100 Mb) is secquenced.
The D.melanogaster genome (180 Mb) is sequenced.
Pharmacopeia acquires Oxoford Molecular Group.
HGP leaders and President Clinton announce the completion of a "working draft" DNA sequence of the human genome.
International research consortium publishes chromosome 21 genome, the smallest human chromosome and the second to be completely sequenced.
DOE researchers announce completion of chromosomes 5, 16, and 19 draft sequence.
International collaborators publish genome of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
2001 - The huam genome (3,000 Mbp) is published.
Human Chromosome 20 Finished - Chromosome 20 is the third chromosome completely sequenced to the high quality specified by the Human Genome Project
2002 - Structural Bioinformatics and GeneFormatics merge
An international sequencing consortium published the full genome sequence of the common house mouse (2.5 Gb). Whitehead Institute researcher Kerstin Lindblad-Toh is the lead author on the paper; her institution lead the project and contributed about half of the sequence. Washington University School of Medicine delivered about 30 percent of the sequence, and created the mouse BAC-based physical map. The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the UK was the third major partner. Other institutes in the International Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium included the University of California at Santa Cruz, the Institute for Systems Biology, and the University of Geneva.
Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium publishes its draft sequence of mouse genome in the December 5, 2002, issue of Nature
International consortium led by the DOE Joint Genome Institute publishes draft sequence of Fugu rubripes.
2003 -Human Genome Project Completion, April 2003.
Human Chromosome 14 Finished - Chromosome 14 is the fourth chromosome to be completely sequenced
2004 - The draft genome sequence of the brown Norway laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, was completed by the Rat Genome Sequencing project Consortium.


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